Friday, April 29, 2011

ALEXMED pon ade sini pon ade..


i) Name serological test: CAT (cardiolipin) & TAT (treponemal) . BOTH USE FOR diagnosis and monitoring treatment and follow up.
Importance of CAT :
·          +ve 10-14 days after appearance of chancre
·         -ve in early primary syphilis
·         +ve screening test so..should be confirmed with TAT…and repeating the CAT
·         Quantitative (gradual increase with progress of disease)
·         Can be used to follow therapy
·         False +ve result
False +ve: malaria
            : measles
            : Infectious mononucleosis
            : leprosy
            : collagen vascular disease ( SLE )
            : drug addiction

TAT      -FTA Abs : most sensitive,1st become +ve in early..remain +ve for many years..
                        Disadvantages : cannot be used to judge efficacy of treatment
            -TP-PA :  performed in microdilution plate.

ii) Test use to diagnose 1ry stage
§  Dark ground microscopy - for motility
§  Flourescein  labeled anti treponemal serum - for antigen
§  NA probes and PCR – for DNA
§  CAT –ve but TAT +ve
iii) Differences HARD and SOFT chancre.
Produce by T.Pallidum
Produce by H.Ducreyi
Never be culture on culture media.
Grow on choc agar.

iv)Specime collection for EVERY STAGES.>
-Exudate from chancre (squeezed gently using gloves) BLEEDING should be avoided (RBC mask the spirochetes)
-Exudate from skin lesions, mucous patches or condyloma lata
-Serum sample
-Serum sample
-CSF sample (active neurosyphilis)

i) Selective media used : THAYER MARTIN > consists of VCN
v  Vancomycin - Gram +ve bact
v  Colistin - Gram -ve bacilli
v  Nystatin - Fungi
ii) Specimen collection ( acute/chronic in males and females )
CHRONIC (org. very few in no. / totally absent)
Urethral discharge from men
Morning urethral drop
Prostatic secretion
Urethral discharge from female
Cervical secretion
Swab from cervix uteri

iii) Culture done in acute stages
ü  Confirm the diagnosis
ü  Isolate the organism to determine its sensitivity to different antibiotics
ü  Medico-legal proceeding
Repeated gonococcal infection common
ü  Protective immunity to reinfection does not appear
ü  Antigenic variation

i) General character:
Ø  Smallest – so can pass through bact filters
Ø  Lack of rigid wall, bounded by triple layered membrane
Ø  Complete resistant to penicillin, so inhibited by tetracycline or erythromycin
Ø  Reproduce in cell free media – grow on agar rich sterols
Ø  Inhibited by specific Ab
Ø  Do not revert to, or originate from bact parental forms
Ø  Affinity to mammalian cell membrane by special terminal adhesion proteins
ii) What are genital mycoplasma (urogenital mycoplasma) : Mycoplasma Hominis
                                                                                                : Ureaplasma urealyticum
Iii) Disease caused by genital mycoplasma
Mycoplasma Hominis
Ureaplasma urealyticum
In females: 3P
-          Pyelonephritis
-          Post abortal or Post partum fever
-          Pelvic inflammatory disease
-          Salphingitis
In male not causing any..
In males : non gonococcal urethritis (10%)
In females : lung disease in premature, low birth weight infants

iv) Differentiate urogenital mycoplasma from others :
GROWTH INHIBITORS with specific antisera            BUT     differentiate ureaplasma urealyticum to M.Hominis by UREASE TEST (+ve in ureaplasma –ve in Hominis)
v) Specimen collection in urogenital mycoplasma affection
o   ONLY UPPER GENITOURINARY specimens are value – because both species frequently colonize the lower genitourinary of both sexes.
o   Urethral swabs or urine after prostatic massage in males.
o   Fetal membrane swabs and semen – part of investigation infertility

i) General properties :
§  Coccoid shape
§  Obligatory intracellular – deficiency in energy producing metabolic pathways
§  Types of NA DNA & RNA
§  Resemble cell wall Gram –ve bact, but no peptidoglycan layer
§  Complicated life cycle of reproduction by fission
§  Sensitive to sulphonamides
§  Contain ribosome and metabolic enzymes
§  Lack mechanism for metabolic energy production
ii) Classification & disease caused
Sites of infection
Organism ( serovars )
Adult & neonatal conjunctivitis
C.T (A,B,Ba,C)
C.T (D-K)
Genital tracts
C.T (D-K)
C.T (D-K)
C.T ( L1-L3)
Pneumonitis of infants
Pharyngitis, pneumonia
C.T (D-K)
C.Psittaci (avian)
C.Psittaci (ovine)

iii) Modes of transmission
Trachoma : eye to eye, droplet, hands, contaminated cloth and flies
Adult inclusion conjunctivitis: anto-inoculation of genital secretion or oral- genital contact (sexually active)
Neonatal conjunctivitis (ophthalmia nenonatorum) : passage through infected maternal birth canal.
C.psittaci from bird to human : Inhalation of dried birds faeces or feathers
TWAR strain C.pneumoniae  : human contact

P/s : what we've study in practical class shoulh be read...hopefully this time would get us easily get 15/15... 

Thursday, April 28, 2011

Some more extra picture we studied in Practical..

This for microplasma...opsss MYCOPLASMA
sterol for :growth
     :membrane(tripple layer)
-grows aerobically but some need air plus 10% CO2
Telur mata kerbau..maybe under metylene blue because of blue colour..
-resistance to penicillin(lack of cell wall)

Ni maybe Giemsa stain..because it look reddish..:P 
-affinity for mammalian cell membrane by special terminal adhesion proteins.

This...emmmm...dont know..whoever knew..please tell us..thanks..:p
-cold agglutination(non specific reaction) in mycoplasma pneumoniae...IgM + RBC type O at 4 celcius..

Chlamydiae..starting with elementary body which infect the epi. cell, then will form intra-cytoplasmic inclusion near the nucleus..the elementary body then forming reticulate time goes on,the maturation of the reticulate body will then transform to elementary body which will be infectious...the cycle continue 

How long the time taken for one cycle of this picture? is 48-72 hours..

it is actively motile by means of Endoflagella.
-no affinity to anilline dyes.

 False +ve results? in what diseases & conditions?
-infectious mononucleosis
-collagen vascular disease(SLE)
-drug addiction
-recent immunization with certain vaccines

P/s : sorry if any of the elaboration points incorrect..bitaufiq wannajah

Lab Diagnosis of Gonorrhea and some pic

Second microbiology practical class of semester 6.


1. Gram -ve diplococci : NEISSERIA culture

2. Gram -ve diplococci : NEISSERIA smear
     stain - Gram stain

3. Gram -ve diplococci : NEISSERIA smear
     stain - Methylene blue


1. Blood agar

2. Chocolate agar

3. Thayer-Martin
    - chocolate agar + VCN (vancomycin, colistin, nystatin)
    - vancomycin for Gram +ve bacteria, colistin for Gram -ve bacteria, nystatin for fungi

4. Oxidase test

-Violet colonies
- IMPORTANT CHARACTER distinguish from meningococcus is ability producing acid from glucose not maltose


Candle jar

-we can also use gas pack jar.

1. Chlamydia - Giemsa stain

-Obligate intracellular 
-not affected by B-lactam antibiotics(absense of peptidoglycan layer in cell wall)
-sensitive to sulphonamides.

2. Chlamydia - McCoy's cells

Lab diagnosis:
-direct antigen detection(IF,ELISA)
-NA probes

3. Mycoplasma - phleomorphic appearance

-SLOW GROWERS: incubated at least 48-96 hrs but maybe several days or even weeks before growth appears..

Saturday, April 23, 2011

Urinary Tract Infections & URINE CULTURE

Here are the slides, plates, test tubes and apparatus from our first microbiology practical class of semester 6.

Slides :

1. Gram -ve bacilli

2. Streptococci in chain

3. Gram +ve cocci arranged in grape-like clusters


stain - Ziehl Neelsen
bacilli - pink
pus - blue

Plates :

1. Non-lactose fermenting colonies on MacConkey's agar

2. Pigmentation of Pseudomonas on NA

3. Swarming of Proteus on blood agar

4. E.coli on MacConkey's agar

5. Staphylococci on NA

6. Miles & Misra
    - to count the colonies and calculate the number of organisms per ml of       urine
    - more accurate than dip slide
    - quantitative

Test tubes :

1. Egg saline
    - enriched media for TB

2. Lowenstein Jensen medium
    - selective media for TB

Apparatus :

1. Dip slide
    - to count the colonies and calculate the number of organisms per ml of       urine
    - semiquantitative

2. Sterile container
    - to collect mid-stream urine sample