Tuesday, July 26, 2011

MCQ Microbiology Semester 5

Di bawah ni ade beberapa link utk contoh soalan MCQ microbiology semester 5. Harap bermanfaat.

MCQ bacteria
MCQ virus

Selamat berjuang! :)

-MICROBIOLOGY- SEM 5 2010/2011 LOs & Answer Scheme

Learning Objectives

Answer Scheme

-PHARMACOLOGY- SEM 5 2010/2011 LOs & Answer Scheme

Learning Objectives

Answer Scheme

In this document, the words written in red colour are not included in our batch's syllabus for the 5th semester. Those highlighted in green have been asked for 2 years in a row.

Wednesday, July 20, 2011

contoh soalan

A 25-year-old man has several enlarged lymph nodes and a maculopapular rash. 2 months ago, he had a painless penile ulcer that resolved spontaneously. Secondary stage syphilis is suspected.

a)   What are the microscopic examination methods required to reach a diagnosis?
Ø  Dark ground microscopy
Ø  Immunofluorescent microscopy

b)   Name the cardiolipin antibody tests that could assist in his diagnosis.
Ø  Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test (VDRL)
Ø  Rapid Plasma Reagin test (RPR)

c)    Why is it necessary to confirm the positive results by one of the treponemal antibody tests?
Ø  To prevent false positive results

d)   Write briefly about the Treponema pallidum-particle agglutination test.
Ø  Gelatin particles are sensitized with T.pallidum antigens
Ø  The test is performed in a microdilution plate with diluted patient’s serum
Ø  Antibodies against T.pallidum react with the sensitized gelatin particles
Ø  A mat of agglutinated particles indicate a positive result
Ø  This test is similar to the FTA-Abs test in specificity and sensitivity

A 20-year-old male presents to the outpatient clinic with a history of fever and a dry cough. Chest X-ray shows consolidation of the right lower lobe of lung. He was primarily diagnosed as pneumonia. Gram stain of sputum revealed many pus cells but no bacteria. Mycoplasma pneumoniae is suspected to be the causative agent.

a)   What is the non-specific serological test that can support the diagnosis?
Cold agglutination technique

b)   State the principal for your answer in (a).
IgM antibodies bind to the class I antigen on the surface of group O human RBCs at 4oC

c)    What antibiotics should be used to treat this patient?
Tetracycline or erythromycin

Give a short account on laboratory diagnosis of infections caused by the TWAR strain.
1.    Cell culture isolation using Cycloheximide-treated McCoy cells.
2.    Serologic diagnosis by complement fixation or microimmunofluorescence test.
Ø  A fourfold titre increase in either IgM or IgG titre is diagnostic
Ø  A single IgM titre of >16 or IgG of >512 is suggestive of recent infection
3.    PCR – to diagnose current infection

Tuesday, July 19, 2011

HIV Notes

thank you J for the notes :)



Sunday, July 10, 2011

-PHARMACOLOGY- 2009 Answer Scheme

Minta maaf atas kekurangan. ni je yg ade. soalan2 lain xdpt dijawab sbb page satu lagi xdpt dijejaki. kalo sesape ade terjumpe, bleh la share. terima kasih.

Saturday, July 9, 2011

-PHARMACOLOGY- Answer Scheme

TERIMA KASIH kepada yang sudi memberi jawapan :)

-PHARMACOLOGY- Exam Review Sem 6

Sunday, June 26, 2011

-MICROBIOLOGY 2009/2010- SEM 6 Answer Scheme

Monday, June 20, 2011


Practical: 15 % of FINAL EXAM MARKS

1. Diabetes

2. Gout

3. Pharmacokinetics (remember the formula to perform calculations and make sure you write it if you don't wanna lose marks :D)

Diuretics, Thyroid, Sex hormones are not included in this practical exam.

15 questions, 15 marks

Questions may be in the form of :
  • Multiple questions
  • Fill in the blanks
Good luck everybody!

The only way of finding the limits of the possible is by going beyond them into the impossible.
-Arthur C. Clarke

Questions of Pharmacokinetics

Here is the link to download Pharmacokinetics presentation.


Example Questions for Pharmacology Practical Exam

Pharmacology Final Exam ILO's


bitaufiq wannajah..:)

Friday, June 17, 2011

-MICROBIOLOGY 2008/2009- SEM 6 Answer Scheme

Wednesday, June 15, 2011


Assalamualaikum..about the topics that will be include in this coming practical exam for pharmacology..it will be:
-Diabetes..(read all about drugs and anything learn in 
- Gout..(more reading on corticosteroid)
- Pharmacokinetics..calculation should be mastered.:P
(about diuretics,thyroid, sex hormones are not include in this practical exam)
(From Dr Inas, coordinator for pharmacology 3rd year)

about the format will be post later here..:)

Friday, April 29, 2011

ALEXMED pon ade sini pon ade..


i) Name serological test: CAT (cardiolipin) & TAT (treponemal) . BOTH USE FOR diagnosis and monitoring treatment and follow up.
Importance of CAT :
·          +ve 10-14 days after appearance of chancre
·         -ve in early primary syphilis
·         +ve screening test so..should be confirmed with TAT…and repeating the CAT
·         Quantitative (gradual increase with progress of disease)
·         Can be used to follow therapy
·         False +ve result
False +ve: malaria
            : measles
            : Infectious mononucleosis
            : leprosy
            : collagen vascular disease ( SLE )
            : drug addiction

TAT      -FTA Abs : most sensitive,1st become +ve in early..remain +ve for many years..
                        Disadvantages : cannot be used to judge efficacy of treatment
            -TP-PA :  performed in microdilution plate.

ii) Test use to diagnose 1ry stage
§  Dark ground microscopy - for motility
§  Flourescein  labeled anti treponemal serum - for antigen
§  NA probes and PCR – for DNA
§  CAT –ve but TAT +ve
iii) Differences HARD and SOFT chancre.
Produce by T.Pallidum
Produce by H.Ducreyi
Never be culture on culture media.
Grow on choc agar.

iv)Specime collection for EVERY STAGES.>
-Exudate from chancre (squeezed gently using gloves) BLEEDING should be avoided (RBC mask the spirochetes)
-Exudate from skin lesions, mucous patches or condyloma lata
-Serum sample
-Serum sample
-CSF sample (active neurosyphilis)

i) Selective media used : THAYER MARTIN > consists of VCN
v  Vancomycin - Gram +ve bact
v  Colistin - Gram -ve bacilli
v  Nystatin - Fungi
ii) Specimen collection ( acute/chronic in males and females )
CHRONIC (org. very few in no. / totally absent)
Urethral discharge from men
Morning urethral drop
Prostatic secretion
Urethral discharge from female
Cervical secretion
Swab from cervix uteri

iii) Culture done in acute stages
ü  Confirm the diagnosis
ü  Isolate the organism to determine its sensitivity to different antibiotics
ü  Medico-legal proceeding
Repeated gonococcal infection common
ü  Protective immunity to reinfection does not appear
ü  Antigenic variation

i) General character:
Ø  Smallest – so can pass through bact filters
Ø  Lack of rigid wall, bounded by triple layered membrane
Ø  Complete resistant to penicillin, so inhibited by tetracycline or erythromycin
Ø  Reproduce in cell free media – grow on agar rich sterols
Ø  Inhibited by specific Ab
Ø  Do not revert to, or originate from bact parental forms
Ø  Affinity to mammalian cell membrane by special terminal adhesion proteins
ii) What are genital mycoplasma (urogenital mycoplasma) : Mycoplasma Hominis
                                                                                                : Ureaplasma urealyticum
Iii) Disease caused by genital mycoplasma
Mycoplasma Hominis
Ureaplasma urealyticum
In females: 3P
-          Pyelonephritis
-          Post abortal or Post partum fever
-          Pelvic inflammatory disease
-          Salphingitis
In male not causing any..
In males : non gonococcal urethritis (10%)
In females : lung disease in premature, low birth weight infants

iv) Differentiate urogenital mycoplasma from others :
GROWTH INHIBITORS with specific antisera            BUT     differentiate ureaplasma urealyticum to M.Hominis by UREASE TEST (+ve in ureaplasma –ve in Hominis)
v) Specimen collection in urogenital mycoplasma affection
o   ONLY UPPER GENITOURINARY specimens are value – because both species frequently colonize the lower genitourinary of both sexes.
o   Urethral swabs or urine after prostatic massage in males.
o   Fetal membrane swabs and semen – part of investigation infertility

i) General properties :
§  Coccoid shape
§  Obligatory intracellular – deficiency in energy producing metabolic pathways
§  Types of NA DNA & RNA
§  Resemble cell wall Gram –ve bact, but no peptidoglycan layer
§  Complicated life cycle of reproduction by fission
§  Sensitive to sulphonamides
§  Contain ribosome and metabolic enzymes
§  Lack mechanism for metabolic energy production
ii) Classification & disease caused
Sites of infection
Organism ( serovars )
Adult & neonatal conjunctivitis
C.T (A,B,Ba,C)
C.T (D-K)
Genital tracts
C.T (D-K)
C.T (D-K)
C.T ( L1-L3)
Pneumonitis of infants
Pharyngitis, pneumonia
C.T (D-K)
C.Psittaci (avian)
C.Psittaci (ovine)

iii) Modes of transmission
Trachoma : eye to eye, droplet, hands, contaminated cloth and flies
Adult inclusion conjunctivitis: anto-inoculation of genital secretion or oral- genital contact (sexually active)
Neonatal conjunctivitis (ophthalmia nenonatorum) : passage through infected maternal birth canal.
C.psittaci from bird to human : Inhalation of dried birds faeces or feathers
TWAR strain C.pneumoniae  : human contact

P/s : what we've study in practical class shoulh be read...hopefully this time would get us easily get 15/15... 

Thursday, April 28, 2011

Some more extra picture we studied in Practical..

This for microplasma...opsss MYCOPLASMA
sterol for :growth
     :membrane(tripple layer)
-grows aerobically but some need air plus 10% CO2
Telur mata kerbau..maybe under metylene blue because of blue colour..
-resistance to penicillin(lack of cell wall)

Ni maybe Giemsa stain..because it look reddish..:P 
-affinity for mammalian cell membrane by special terminal adhesion proteins.

This...emmmm...dont know..whoever knew..please tell us..thanks..:p
-cold agglutination(non specific reaction) in mycoplasma pneumoniae...IgM + RBC type O at 4 celcius..

Chlamydiae..starting with elementary body which infect the epi. cell, then will form intra-cytoplasmic inclusion near the nucleus..the elementary body then forming reticulate body...as time goes on,the maturation of the reticulate body will then transform to elementary body which will be infectious...the cycle continue 

How long the time taken for one cycle of this picture?...it is 48-72 hours..

it is actively motile by means of Endoflagella.
-no affinity to anilline dyes.

 False +ve results? in what diseases & conditions?
-infectious mononucleosis
-collagen vascular disease(SLE)
-drug addiction
-recent immunization with certain vaccines

P/s : sorry if any of the elaboration points incorrect..bitaufiq wannajah